词汇解析,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外开支

原标题:【国际】泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外成本

本期原作选自The Economist 2017-0二-二伍的小说Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自宾夕法尼亚州立高阶7版、有道词典等能源。要是您也在攻读The
Economist,欢迎订阅作者的文集The
Economist,一起学习沟通。

翻译按:任何1个行业的革命都会受到既有势力的阻挠。读完本文,你将理解到卫生财富为啥不能够立时取代旧财富的四个原因,以及或然的消除方案——政党的涉企和调节。
正文译自《文学人》八月2二十八日刊。

词汇解析,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外开支。By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰王国老董起草的新法律供给向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外资费。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

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Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经音讯北美洲评价》电视发表,泰王国发电局(EGAT)供给支付那笔成本作为区块链技术带来的机密影响的补贴。

【1】renewables 可再生能源

管工学人封面

最近,类似于图中的吉林浙高校同的大大大猫熊形状的太阳能发电类型已经很广阔了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive美高梅4858官方网站,: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池和风涡轮机表明大概150年后,他们还是只产生世界7%的电力。不过,1些值得注意的事体正在爆发。十几年前还处在财富系统的外围,它们今后的增长速度当先其它别的财富,它们下落的财力使其和化石燃料壹样有竞争力
BP,一家原油企业,估算可再生财富将占现在20年天下财富供应增加的10分之伍。世界正在进入3个洁净,Infiniti和减价电力的一世不再是思疑的。也是时刻难点。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)可是,有一个20万亿比索的小问题。从后天到今后亟需在未来几拾年大批量的投资,以取代旧的喷出平流雾的发发电站和升级给顾客带来电的电缆塔和电线。平日投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供保障的回报。然则,紫色财富有3个邋遢的机要。它铺排得愈多,它就会让来自别的来源的电力价格下落愈多。那使得通向无碳的前景的交接难以决定,在那之间,借使要让灯继续发光的话,许多致电技术,无论清洁依然污染,须要保持毛利。除非集镇是永恒的,否则对行业的补贴只会增加。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是1部关于天气变化和中外变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的精神》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

3)政策制定者已经把这几个尴尬的实质看作停止可再生财富的3个缘故。在澳洲和9州的一对地段,可再生财富的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。然则,消除方案不是更少的风和太阳能。而是重新思量世界怎么为卫生财富定价,以便更好地动用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    四)其大旨难点是,政坛帮忙的可再生能源已经被强加到一个例外时期设计出的商海。在20世纪的超越1/2时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的独占集团创设和平运动载的。从20世纪80时代伊始,个中许多独揽被打破,被私有化和取向,使市集能力能够操纵最佳投资趋势。前天唯有约陆%的电力用户从垄断集团获得他们的电力。但是,随地去碳电力供应的压力1度使得国家骨子里潜回市面。那是破坏性的,有多个原因。第一是补贴制度自我。其余三个是风和太阳的特性固有的:它们的间歇性和它们好低的周转开销。这三个原因帮忙解释了干吗电力价格低和集体补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

伍)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自200玖年来说约为8000亿美金,扭曲了市面。它是由于名贵的说辞——为了对抗气候变化和鞭策发展新的、昂贵的技艺,包蕴风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。可是,由于财富功效的不停增加和金融危害的震慑,富裕国家的电力消耗固步自封,补贴就在那儿出现。结果导致过量的发电能力,大幅度减小了电力服务公司从普遍电力市集获得的受益,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

陆)其次,淡紫灰电源断断续续。风和太阳的浮动莫测——
特别是在未有适用天气的国度——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在部分年华致电。为了维持电力流动,系统依靠常规的发电站,例如煤、汽油或核能,在可再生财富减弱起到效益。不过因为他俩久久高居空闲场地,他们发现很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了保全灯亮着,他们需求国有花费。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    柒)每一种人都受到第多少个成分的影响:可再生能源具有可忽略的照旧是零边界运维资本——因为风和日光是免费的。在2个匡助于以压低长期开销生生产能力源的商海中,风能和太阳能从运转费用更高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)这里拿走生意,下落电价,从而下降了全部人的低收入。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

捌)可再生财富的渗透率越高,那一个题材越严重——特别是在饱满市镇。在率先感受到影响的亚洲,电力服务集团面临了低收入降低、资金财产搁浅和店铺瓦解的“失去的10年”。2018年,德意志两大电力供应商E.ON和TiguanWE两家都分拆成两家。在美利坚合众国可再生财富丰硕的地域,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有多量风力的地点,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有职业可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被再次调整,因为投资重点去往收益于集体支撑的领域。争执的是,那象征支持可再生财富的国度愈来愈多,他们为不奇怪发电厂支付的也越来越多,来利用“体量支付”来消除间歇性。实际上,革命家而不是市面再一次决定怎样制止停电。他们时常犯错误:德意志联邦共和国对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排泄量上升,固然其对可再生财富提供多量补贴。没有1种新的法子,可再生财富革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

十)好消息是,新技巧可以援助缓解这些难题。数字化,智能电度量提醒仪表和电池使公司和家庭能够解决她俩的须求——例如在夜间做一些能源密集型的干活。那有助于应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发电站,简单灵活调节生产能力,变得特别受欢迎,高压电力网也足以更管用地在互联网上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1壹)更大的天职是再次设计电力集镇,以反映对灵活供应和需要的新需求。他们理应更频仍地调价,以反映气候的不定。在相当稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起效用来阻拦停电。市集应该奖励愿意利用更少的电力的人来平衡电力网,正如他们奖励那3个爆发更加多电力的人。账单能够被组织变为更高或更低,这取决客户多么分明地盼望一向保障电力供应——有点像保单。由此可知,政策制定者应该了然,他们有题目,原因不是可再生能源,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们相应化解它。

原稿出处:管理学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于其它商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本身承担。本身同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的公告后,删除文章。

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家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数码正在神速扩大。那正是财富监禁委员会(EQashqaiC)供给制订对各种人都相提并论软禁的原故。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

进一步多的泰王国公司接纳分布式账本技术(DLT)支持房主从屋顶太阳能系统中盈利。新一代区块链消费者通过在疏散的点对点(p二p)能源市集上购销剩余的太阳能电力能源,造成该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

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201陆年,中华夏族民共和国担负了多于四成的全世界可再生财富,根据1项新的就学展现,那是一项整个世界水草绿能源合成物的记录。

换句话说,随着市镇层面包车型客车扩展,直接从国营公用事业公司购进的电力收缩,那意味传统电力行业的净收入收缩。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还放任了对非政党太阳能发电的严酷限制。据《苏黎世邮报》广播发表,泰王国政党同意家庭和商店二零一八年二月将太阳电池板爆发的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但只怕当年并未料到p二p财富社区会这么便捷地使用区块链技术吧。

【三】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际能源代理中心(IEA),一家在举行在法国巴黎的咨询公司,发现可再生产资料源占新财富的二分之一。有史以来第一次,太阳能合成物发展的比包蕴煤炭在内的别的燃料快。

英文原稿

【4】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【5】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

2018年,满世界太阳能体量增进了二分一,在中原顶住了将近的1贰分之伍的能量拉长的情状下跌成并超越7肆千兆瓦。同时中中原人民共和国也是全球用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市集的企管者。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【6】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

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IEA的履行监护人Fatih
Birol推断在202二年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够升高10亿沃特t,可能现在满世界用煤量的五成。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“我们正在见证二个新太阳能电板时期的落地,“
Birol说,”我们估摸在202二年,太阳能光板的能量会比任何任何可再生产资料源技术进步的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

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In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的告知中,中国被认为是社会风气上“毫无疑问的可再生财富的首长“,在对环境污染和能量指标的焦虑下,可再生产资料源的支出被标明在中华第32个5年布署中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告诉中还说中华表示了大地太阳能板的须要量,中华夏族民共和国制作了天下百分之60左右的太阳能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

主要编辑:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提出,由于市镇的体量,中华夏族民共和国国策的向上会对全世界的太阳能必要,供应和价格发生潜移默化。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

报告中阐明了中华的可再生财富的津贴和网络集成的标价不断增高,会对前景的前行有私人住房阻碍,并觉得中夏族民共和国对可再生财富的政策应当依据这些阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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神州从停放电价项目升高到有乌紫证书的定额分配制。IEA认为那么些新的方针加上能量商场的重新整理,新的电子通信传输线,和分布式发电的增添会加紧太阳能财富的遍布。

【1二】creep in/into sth 最首发出(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在政坛政策解决发展阻碍的场合下,IEA分析发今后202二年,中华夏族民共和国教导的伍洲可再生财富的体积会在加码30%也正是壹,150千瓦。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从大地的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的下跌,对提高新的可再生财富体积做出了进献。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【1四】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,United Kingdom政坛举行了风力场的竞价会,两家商厦同意建立每时辰发生五七.50新币(约合76法郎)的百万沃特t的装置。这些价位已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的二分之一。意味着在英帝国,海上风力发电第三回比原子能发电要有利。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【1五】solar panel太阳电池板

United Kingdom和9州的钻探人士最近公布了八个新类型去研商“下一个时期“的风能和波浪能的科学技术。

【1陆】hit产生不良影响,危害

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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英国的自然财富研商委员会和工程及自然科委会在今后三年会为那些连串出资四百万法郎。中夏族民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会掏钱。

【壹七】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【18】vagaries风云突变

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【1玖】kick in开头生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【2一】marginal
costs【会计学】边际资金(指因小额变动而致使总财力的附和变更)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【2叁】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【2四】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,音讯封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【二陆】smart meter智能电度量提示仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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